Java script is disabled , please enable your browser java script first.

News Detail

Secrets About Water & Moringa Agriculture: Requirement and management That Nobody Will Tell You.

11 Apr, 2022

Water in Agriculture

'With a world population of 9.9 billion by 2050, as projected by the United Nations, there are reasons for concern over whether the food and fiber need of future generations can be met in regions with limited water resources.

Water is one of the world’s most valuable resources, most essential and the most important necessity for plant growth and formation of quality and abundant fruits. The amount of water required by the plant depends on the growing phases during the season. The highest need for water is during the initial crop development, flowering, and fruit setting phases.

Since there are very few regions where precipitation is sufficient to satisfy crop needs, additional water must be provided artificially, by establishing an irrigation system. The lack of water during the growing season will lead to reduced yield

About Moringa: Environmental Factors

Moringa oleifera can be grown in tropical wet and dry, semiarid, subtropical dry summer. It tolerates annual precipitation of 480 to 2600 mm. The environmental conditions for Moringa cultivation should meet the tree’s requirements to be able to maintain optimal growth and nutrient uptake. Sand to loam soil texture, soil pH between 5.5 and 7.5, temperature range of 25-35°C and other requirements should be maintained for the tree’s growth.

The pH of the soil has a strong influence on the availability of essential elements needed for plant growth. A too high or low pH can cause nutrient deficiencies in the plant. Moringa can tolerate a pH range from 5 until 9.

However, for the tree’s growth, the acidity should not be lower than 5.5. as pH lower than 5.5, the availability of minerals such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and others significantly decrease.

Whereas with a pH above 7.5, iron, manganese, boron, etc., become less available for plant uptake. This results in an optimum pH range from 5.5 until 7.5 for Moringa oleifera nutrient uptake.

Any pH level above or below this range may result in a nutrient deficiency which will ultimately affect the nutrient content of the tree.

Plant canopy environment

The canopy of a plant, which includes the aboveground part of a plant, provides the surface area for gas exchange and light interception. It facilitates photosynthesis, which is the core chemical reaction that takes place in a plant cell.

The uptake of carbon dioxide and water from the surrounding plant canopy air can be influenced by environmental factors such as light, temperature, water availability and atmospheric CO2. These are all limiting factors of photosynthesis. If one of the factors is at a lower level, the plant may have net negative photosynthesis, where the respiration rate outperforms the photosynthetic rate. Respiration is the process of sugars being converted into water and carbon dioxide for other plant functions, which will affect the growth rate of the plant.

Light directly influences photosynthesis and other important plant growth processes. This is also relevant for the Moringa oleifera tree. Since Moringa oleifera is native to tropical or sub-tropical climates, it requires approximately 10.5 – 13.5 hours of light per day, which is common to these climate zones.

The Plant should be grown in an open area for the leaves to receive the full sunlight. The tree should not be shaded by higher trees or buildings for optimal nutrient uptake and growth. If the leaves receive insufficient light the tree will become etiolated, what will stop the nutrient uptake and leaf production. Extensive light deprivation will force the plant to release the minerals back into the soil solution.

Temperature is directly connected with light intensity. Moringa oleifera prefers hot weather. Temperature influences photosynthesis, respiration, plant growth rate, and mineral and water uptake by the roots. For optimal leaf production, Moringa oleifera requires a high average daily temperature of 26-37°C The growth rate of the tree shows a great decline under temperatures below 20 °C


Climatic and soil attributes to produce MOMAX3 Moringa-oil Tree 

MOMAX3-oil Tree Attributes










Daily Temp. Requirement (C)





Annual Rainfall (mm)










Soil pH





Light intensity

very bright

clear skies

very bright

cloudy skies

Soil depth

deep (>150 cm)


medium (50-150 cm)


Soil texture

medium, light


heavy, medium, light


Soil fertility





Soil salinity

low (<4 dS/m)




Soil drainage

well (dry spells





Water requirement of Moringa crop

'The water footprint of Moringa crop is smaller than that of foods, fiber and other crops but being tropical in nature it needs water. The requirement of water is contingent upon local soil and climatic conditions. The stage of fertigation should be matched with the time of irrigation. The critical stages of irrigation (viz. transplanting, dry spell, vegetative and reproductive stages).

The estimated water quantity required for a profitable perennial moringa plantation for seed oil production is 8-14 liter per day (13-23 Cub M/day/ hectare plantation.

The frequency for irrigation shall depend also on climatic condition and if we take around 6 months as rainy season, the water requirement shall come to 4183 Cub M/year/hectare

The MOMAX3 Moringa tree less water i.e., 8 l/d/tree (13 Cub M/D/T

Limitations to Watering in Agriculture

Prior to setting up an irrigation system, a grower/project developer must consider the following limiting factors to adequately set-up:

  • Soil properties; soil type, drainage, water holding capacity
  • Water quality; availability, quality, quantity, water requirements
  • Crop properties; yield potential, row space, harvest practices, rooting depth
  • Climate requirements; humidity, temperature, precipitation
  • Farmer capabilities; farm labour, finance health, management skills, farm practices
  • Irrigation system properties: operating cost, and the ability to deliver and apply the amount of water needed to meet the crop’s water requirement.

The above-mentioned factors are important and should be considered prior to designing and managing an irrigation system. Moreover, all factors need to be managed well, to supply Moringa crop with water when they need it most.

How to economize the water application

1.     Use of Efficient Mulching

There is a continual drive to conserve water and improve irrigation efficiency in agriculture, especially in regions where water resources are limited. Mulching is one cultural practice which can be used to reduce water needs. In Moringa, a mulch layer of at least 5 cm reduced surface evaporation to 40% compared to the water losses from bare soil

2.     Install appropriate irrigation system


Irrigation systems are widely used in every crop production to apply the amount of water needed for the crop. The practice is also known as irrigation management. Despite its broad application, irrigation should occur in a uniform and timely manner to minimize losses and damage to soil, water, air, plant, and animal resources.

Moringa perform very well with Drip irrigation where water can be artificially supplied to plants using system: Water is placed directly into the Moringa root zone from the low flow emitters,

Drip irrigation is the most efficient water and nutrient delivery system for growing quality Moringa produce. It delivers water and nutrients directly to the plant’s roots zone, in the right amounts, at the right time, so each plant gets exactly what it needs, when it needs it, to grow optimally. Thanks to drip irrigation, Moringa growers can produce higher yields while saving on water as well as fertilizers, energy and even crop protection products.

Drip irrigation systems are having an important priority in the new moringa project. Drip irrigation systems were found to result in 70% water savings in Moringa tree oil orchard and 50% in Moringa leaf plantation with 25 to 60% increase in yield as compared to conventional methods of irrigation as timely application of water and liquid fertilisers improve irrigation efficiencies and ultimately yields.

In increasing awareness of water importance, irrigation systems have become more sophisticated, efficient, and more widely used among growers. Drip irrigation not only saves time, but it also saves water, improves crop growth, reduce weeds, and saves money.

Best Moringa Tree care Practices will offer experienced insights into how to get the best results from your Moringa Farm, guidelines set forth with water management for growing Moringa i.e., maximizing the water efficiencies

The amount of water a Moringa tree needs depends on many factors, including the age and species of the tree, the time of year, weather and soil type and different growth stages

Dos and Don'ts

Finally, every grower knows that irrigation facilitates the management of crop production by providing crops the most valuable resource, being water. But there are certain Do’s and Don’ts for watering the Moringa trees for maximise the growth and harvest and every new/grower must know about it. To know when to water, when not to water and how to apply the water, consult with me